潘松雕塑解读——孙振华

潘松雕塑解读

Unscrambling Pan Song’s Sculptures

孙振华 深圳雕塑院院长、中国雕塑学会副会长、理论家
Sun Zhenhua, Theorist

Director of Shenzhen Sculpture Academy
Vice-Director of China Sculpture Institute

  

        一般而言,一个雕塑家在正式进入创作状态之前,都有一个较长时期的学习过程,也就是他的知识储备过程。在这方面,目前能看到的关于潘松前创作时期的资料很少。所以,只能反过来,通过他的作品,推测他学习的过程和他的知识状态,譬如,他关心什么,他为什么会关心这些,他为什么热衷于表现这些?

        在相当一个时期,潘松都在做一个雕塑系列:霓裳。在潘松的艺术词典里,霓裳就是T台上的模特和她们身着的衣服和配饰。

        为什么是霓裳?

        潘松研究生毕业后,分配在北京服装学院雕塑系任职,服装学院的“T台秀是他经常会面对的生活,也是他重要的视觉资源。而选择熟悉的对象,是艺术家选择创作题材的最直接的理由。

        然而,时装表演毕竟是一种时尚的事物,而选择古色古香的霓裳命名,让当下的时尚有了一种历史的距离感。或许潘松要的就是这种感觉:在时尚和古雅之间,在当下和过去之间,在现实和想象之间,营造一种恍惚迷离,似真似幻的间离效果

        严格地说,这已经是第二层间离效果,第一层间离效果则是模特、服饰、T台走秀的本身,它们已经就是一种对生活的化妆。相对于日常经验中的生活现实,它们是装饰过的,提升了的,与现实有差距的生活;是一种理想化的,带有强烈人工痕迹的,带有明确生活态度的生活。

        对雕塑而言,这是一个特殊的角度,而特殊的角度产生的是特殊的效果。

        艺术作品意义产生的原因是综合的,它不仅仅来自作品本身,很多时候,它还来自于历史、语境、上下文关系所带来的隐喻和暗示。霓裳自然也是如此。在中国传统关于霓裳的语义中,它包含了足够丰富的文化信息:青云衣兮白霓裳指的是以云为衣裳的神仙;蔽日下霓裳指的是云气;春风荡漾霓裳飞指的是舞衣;同时,霓裳还指舞女、道服,更是千古名曲《霓裳羽衣曲》的简称,当然,它也指那段名舞……

        中国文化中所积淀的大量关于霓裳的文化信息,构成了人们观看潘松的系列雕塑霓裳时的心理期待和文化背景。

          这是一种怎样的感受呢?

        这是一种综合的意象,它们把仙女云霓衣裳舞姿等多种古代与霓裳相关的意象和当代时尚的T台秀中的模特时装猫步性感结合在一起,构成了一种夸张的、强化的、带有神秘意味,具有装饰性,富于动感的综合意象。

        初看潘松的霓裳系列,当人们为这种丰富的第一感受略感惊异的时候,眼睛的直觉马上又告诉人们,这是一种东方的意象,只是,在中国的雕塑系统中,像这样表现T台秀上的模特,同时大胆、尽情、畅快地将作者的主观感受与之融为一体的作品似乎还没有见过。

        在中国传统文化的背景中,以当代时尚文化为媒介,把东方的女性美和服饰美以一种极度张扬的,充满形式感的方式表现出来,这或许就是潘松霓裳系列的独特性所在。

        在潘松的作品中,与霓裳相匹配的,是女性的身体。这些各式各样的身体赋予了潘松作品的时代性。

        《礼·劝学》中说:见人不可以不饰。不饰无貌,无貌不敬,不敬无礼,无礼不立。可见,服装从来就不是物质性的,服装装饰身体,身体承载社会关系。从古到今,在仪容服饰的方面,它总是人的社会性的直接反映;人们可以发现,服饰是一把衡量人性、性别禁抑程度的尺子,这把尺子是以服饰与人的身体的相互关系和松紧度为对象。服饰在某种程度上,它监视着人的身体,梳查性别秩序与社会秩序,守护特定时期所认定的文明,通过服装,为社会文明划定合理的底线。

        身体的状态,它与衣服的合适程度,开放程度,是一种社会性的表达。潘松作品中,那些身着霓裳的身体,实际是象征性的。在这里,人们看到的不到张三、李四的身体;而是一种身体的状态或者说是一些符号的身体,它们在一起,定义了这个时代关于女性身体观念,见证了女性身体认识的社会性的变化。

        潘松的作品对身体是欣赏的,赞颂的,它们是对与霓裳匹配的女性身体的刻画和礼遇,它是理想中的生活形态与活动模式。在人类的生命中,其中一种非常重要的意念,就是对人类自身的欣赏和崇拜,这也是生命的基本意念和最高意念。

        在潘松的作品中,身体与服装的互动,呈现出多姿多彩的方式:例如裸露;这是展现女性美和性感的一种重要手段,让身体的双臂、双肩、胸、背、腰腹、腿脚以合适的方式裸露,与服饰相配合,可以在不同的质感、有机和无机、自然和人工的对比中产生丰富的联想和想象。

        再例如身体的姿态、轮廓和线条的表现上,潘松一般将女性身体拉得修长,身体的轮廓线往往中断在服装中,但是又能在视觉上引导观众,在想象中完成整体的轮廓线;他时常让这些模特的身体做出一些不符合生活常态,甚至是很难做出的姿态和动作,正是在这种超常的肢体动作中,让身体的形态更加丰富,更能超出一般经验,给人以惊异的感受。

        当然,潘松所表现的身体并不是真实的、原型的身体,它是对服装表演的再度表演,是将模特的表演雕塑化,也就是在模特艺术表演基础之上的再艺术化,这个过程,一方面使他的夸张具有了合理性;另一方面,也使他的作品超越了T台,具有了更为宽阔的阐释空间。

        Generally, before devoting oneself to the creation, a sculptor tends to spend a long time in studying, which is in effect a knowledge-reserve stage. I fail to get any information about Pan Song’s “Pre-creation Period”, so I have to adopt an inverse way, namely speculating on his learning process and his knowledge state through his works: What does he concern himself about? Why is he keen on creating that?

        Pan Song has spent quite a long time on one sculpture series which is called “Ni Shang” or “Rainbow Fashion”. In Pan’s art dictionary, “Ni Shang” refers to fashion models on the runway as well as their rainbow-like costumes and accessories.

        Why does he prefer “Ni Shang”?

        Upon graduation as a postgraduate, Pan Song came to teach in the Sculpture Department, Beijing Institute of Technology. Undoubtedly, “Runway Shows” have naturally become something he acquaints himself with in his life and an important vision source as well. It is acknowledged that artists are apt to choose objects which they are familiar with as their creation themes.

        Fashion shows are, after all, fashionable, so Pan Song opts to name his series “Ni Shang”, a term suggesting ancient charm and creating a historical distance away form the current fashion. Maybe it is the “Verfremdungseffekt” or “distancing effect” that Pan Song is seeking after: near or far, dreamy or real, clear or blurred, hard to differentiate between fashion and classic, present and past, as well as reality and imagination.

        In a strict sense, the said “distancing effect” is in the second layer, with the first layer referring to models, clothes and runway shows as they are life in disguise. Compared with the reality in our daily life experience, they suggest a life which is decorated, promoted, distant form reality, a life which is idealized, artificial and denoting a sharp-cut attitude.

        It is a special perspective for sculpture creation, which in return produces special effect.

        The significance of certain art work comes from not necessarily the work itself; more than often, however, it is from metaphor or allusion brought by history and context. The term “Ni Shang” is not an exception with its profound culture connotation in Chinese literature works. In Qu Yuan’s Chuci anthology, Jiuge (Nine Songs) “Qing Yun Yi Xi Bai Ni Shang”(White costumes in the background of blue sky), it refers to immortal god in white clothes; in Xie Tiao’s poem “Bi Ri Xia Ni Shang”(mists fleeing with the rising sun), it denotes mists and clouds; in Bai Juyi’s poem “Chun Feng Dang Yang Ni Shang Fei” (dancing like flying in rainbow costume with the spring breeze blowing softly), it indicates to the dancer’s rainbow costume; besides, the word “Ni Shang” is often taken as synecdoche for dancers, costumes, dances, and even dance tunes as in the musical masterpiece “Ni Shang Yu Yi Qu” (Melody of Rainbow-colored and Feathered Costumes).

        Thanks to the profound accumulation of cultural connotations regarding “Ni Shang” in the Chinese culture, we appreciate and comprehend Pan Song’s sculpture works “Ni Shang” series with sort of psychological expectations and cultural backgrounds.

        What is it exactly?

        It is a combination of various images, associating such traditional images regarding “Ni Shang” as “fairy goddess”, “mists”, “rainbow costumes” and “graceful dancing” with modern fashion images of “models”, “fashion costumes”, “catwalk” and even “sexy beauty” which appear in the runway show, thus, creating comprehensive images which are exaggerated, intensified, mysterious, decorative and mobile.

        You will feel amazed at the first glance of the Pan Song’s “Ni Shang” with rich senses and emotions. Intuition tells you it is kind of oriental image; however, in Chinese sculpture system, works like these are rare with such expression of runway models and to merge a sculptor’s subjective feelings with his works so boldly and freely.

        Under the background of traditional Chinese culture, taking the modern fashion culture as the medium and expressing the oriental feminine and fashion beauty in such an exaggerated way, this is the place where lies the uniqueness of Pan Song’s “Ni Shang” series.

        Compatible with “Ni Shang” in Pan Song’s works are women’s figures. Various figures endow his sculptures with characteristics of the time.

        As a saying goes in Confucianism “Da Li Ji ·Quan Xue” (“Records of Ritual MattersExhortation to Study”), “One has to dress up before meeting with guests; otherwise a slovenly appearance will show less respect to others; consequently, one’s lack of courtesy will make him hard to succeed.” Apparently, clothing is not merely a matter of physical materials, but the decoration for human bodies which bears a lot of social significance and reflects human sociality directly in all ages. Clothing is deemed as measurement for humanity, sexual bias or discrimination. What matters are the function of clothing and whether the human body is wrapped loose or tight. Clothing, to some extent, monitors human bodies, maintains sex rules and social orders, safeguards certain civilization in respective periods, and is served as a proper bottom line for a civilized society.

        The state of human bodies, associated with fitness and degree of nudity of clothes on the body, is a sort of social expression. In Pan Song’s sculptures, those figures in “Ni Shang” or fashion costumes are in effect symbolized, where nobody’s body is visible but the state of the body or a collection of symbolic bodies which as a whole defines the feminine body concept of our age and witnesses our cognitive social changes.

        Pan Song’s works show respect and appreciation towards human bodies. The sculpting with courtesy of famine figures that are compatible with “Ni Shang” or fashion costumes is an ideal pattern or mode of life. Appreciation and worship of human beings is a vital part in human life and a fundamental as well as supreme notion about life.

        The interaction of bodies and clothes in Pan Song’s sculptures is exhibited in various ways: nudity, for example, is an important approach to present feminine beauty and sexual charm. Bare limbs, shoulders, chests, backs, waists or bellies, if exposed in appropriate ways and compatible with fashion clothes and accessories, will trigger boundless association and imagination through the contrast among different textures and between organic or inorganic, natural or artificial objects.

        Another example is seen in the expression of gestures, silhouettes, figures and lines of human bodies. Pan Song tends to stretch in his works feminine figures to be much more slender, with silhouettes of figures divided by wrapped clothes, so imagination is aroused about the complete outline. He also inclines to sculpt feminine figures with exaggerated gestures or unusual poses which undoubtedly enrich our visual experience.

        Obviously, what Pan Song displays in his works are not figures in reality, but a reproduction of fashion show figures in the form of sculpture, through which, his exaggeration becomes rational, and his works are no longer confined to the narrow runway but promoted to a much more broad field of art.

                                  

        潘松另一系列的作品霓裳的反差之大,出人意料,但又在情理之中。

        “霓裳是典型的雕塑家的行为,尽管它是新颖、有特色的,但雕塑的传统因素都在。例如它们强调具象的人物;强调形体的塑造;强调材料的实验;尝试同一对象用不同材质制作进行对比,发现它们在体量感、色彩、情感方面的差异等等。这一切,都是在尽一个雕塑家的本份。

        “是从雕塑的经典形态中的出走,来到一个抽象的世界,在一个更具有物质实体性的世界里,通过几何化的形体,来展现另外内容。

        如果说,霓裳的灵感更直接地来自都市的“T生活,而的灵感来自更宽阔的古代文化遗产中,它更直接地来自古代的建筑、器物、书法;如果说,霓裳的文化意象多少还带有浪漫主义的、装饰性的、神秘的、文学性的色彩,那么的文化意象则更加带有具有历史感的、空间的、粗砺的、沧桑的色彩。

        在的系列中,似乎可以分为两类,一种是较为直接地将古代建筑中的斗拱榫卯转化为雕塑语言。

        潘松通过自己独特的制作工艺,将古代建筑语言转化后,进行了户外空间的尝试,收到了不错的效果。这种效果是可以预料到的。试想,经历了几千年的风雨,这种形式样式已经内化成为稳定的中华民族文化心理结构的组成部分,将它们的局部加以变形,进行雕塑形态的转化,自然会成为大气、凝重、沉雄,为人们喜闻乐见的空间构筑。

        不过,它的问题可能也正是在这种对传统元素的运用中。因为它是人们熟悉的,所以当人们可以顺利地接纳这种形式的时候,它可能失去了某种让人们在熟悉之外,又让人惊异的东西,这也就是作为艺术家更具个性的东西。而这一点,恰好是霓裳所具备,而在目前还不完全具备的。

        也许作者在这个时候,对传统艺术的理解更透彻了,对民族文化的热爱更深切了,但是,对传统文化的热爱和崇敬不应该成为放弃个人创造性的理由。

        美国心理学家帕金斯曾经举过一个创造性思维的例子:一般人切苹果都是通过南北极纵切的。但是他的儿子却一反常人的思维,沿着苹果的赤道线去横切,结果发现了一个人们平时看不到的景色——一个五角的星形图案。对一个艺术家而言,他的创造力在于,恰恰是他能够把那些由于其简单和熟悉而被隐藏起来的事物发现出来,并且能赋予它恰当的形式。

        所以,系列的直接转化这一类仍然是一个在探索中的课题,不过潘松在系列中,还有一类。这就是最近创作完成的鹿等,它较之前一类,它们更能代表的成就,更出色地表现出了潘松对传统创造性转化所取得的成果。

        这几件作品除了仍有斗拱、榫卯的因素外,它还注重书法因素的运用,整体上,它们更为成熟,较好地将传统图式和元素进行了一种个人性的转化。

        《鹿》来自于金文,文字本身的象形因素为作者将它进一步空间化、雕塑化提供了可能。这件雕塑的大形与金文相关,但是它远远已经不再是金文本身。雕塑的具体形体构成,又吸收了的形式语言,因此,这件作品在整体上,可以感到仿佛来自中国远古的那种浑朴大气,感到中国古代建筑斗拱的力量感和构成感,感到榫卯的结构的生命力,但是它又是一种新的综合,它达到了自身的完整统一。这种效果的获得需要艺术家赋予它一种统一的形态和气质,它在客观上要求艺术家有源于传统,驾驭传统,超越的传统的创新意识。

        《家》和《鼓》在作品的来源上也是如此,分别来自金文和甲骨文,同样吸收了古代建筑和榫卯的形式特征,同样产生了较好的效果。对潘松而言,这或许是一条更有建设性,更有可持续性的创作方向。对潘松这样一直钟情于传统艺术的雕塑家而言,这既是一条回家的路,更是一条创新的路。

        相信在这条路上他会领略更多的风景,而我们会看到更精彩的潘松。

        Another series of Pan Song’s sculpture works named “Pu” form a sharp contrast to his “Ni Shang”, surprisingly, but reasonably.

        “Ni Shang” are typical sculptor’s works despite their novelty and characteristics, because such traditional sculpture elements are involved as much emphasis are placed on concrete figures, figures shaping, trials on materials as well as creating the same objects by adopting various textures so as to explore differences in their weights, colors and emotions. That is what we expect of a sculptor.

        “Pu”, however, steps from the traditional state into an abstract one, namely, to unfold before our eyes something different with geometrized shapes in a more realistic world.

        If “Ni Shang” draws its inspiration from the metropolitan runway shows, “Pu” is originated from ancient cultural heritage such as ancient constructions, artifacts and calligraphy; if cultural images brought by “Ni Shang” are sort of romantic, decorative, mysterious and literary, what could be associated with “Pu” are historical, spatial, rough and weather-beaten.

        “Pu” series may possibly be classified into two sections with one transforming directly into sculptures from the “bucket arches” and “tenon-and-mortise work” which frequently appear in ancient constructions.

        With his unique workmanship, Pan Song has successfully transformed ancient construction languages into his sculptures which have withstood the open air trials. His success is inevitable. Imagine that during the past thousands of years, those ancient buildings have faced the world and braved the storm and become internalized into Chinese people’s cultural spirits, so just with some transformation and reproduction, they will undoubtedly become spatial constructions that are spectacular, solid, dignified and well-accepted.

        However, the application of traditional elements may bring about some trouble as well. As people are ready to accept what they have been accustomed to, they may merely focus their attention on the part they are familiar with. Should an artist fail to create something unique, it would be quite difficult for the audience to be carried away by his works. In this respect, “Ni Shang” has brought us a great thrill while “Pu” still needs some improvement.

        Maybe it is because of the sculptor’s much more in-depth perception into traditional arts or passion for national culture, but which should in no way become an excuse for abandoning his uniqueness and creativity.

        American psychologist David N. Perkins once cites an example of creative thinking: People tend to cut an apple in half by starting at the stem and slicing through to the dimple on the bottom. However, his son cut it the wrong way that he turned the apple on its side, sliced the apple in half perpendicular to the stem, only to find a marvelous result ---- in cross-section, the core of the apple made a distinctive five-pointed star. As for an artist, his creativity lies in that he is able to discover what is hidden under the simple and familiar covers, and to endow it with proper forms.

        To sum up, this section of “Pu” series regarding direct transformation is still in the process of exploration. The other section, including his latest works “Deer”, “Drum” and “Home”, compared with the former section, seems to be better representative of “Pu” ‘s achievements with regard to transforming traditions creatively.

        Besides the “bucket arches” and “tenon-and-mortise work”, this section adopts calligraphy elements more skillfully and maturely with a much more personified transformation of traditional graphs and elements.

        “Deer” is originated from "Jin Wen" or Bronze Inscriptions whose pictographic characters or pictographs make it possible for sculptors to give full play to its spatial structure in the sculpture creation. However, the sculpture work has already surpassed "Jin Wen" in itself. Generally, this work will make you feel a simple yet spectacular sense which seems to be traced back to ancient China, feel the power and constitution of ancient Chinese constructions, as well as feel the vigorous vitality of tenon-and-mortise work. It is however a brand-new combination which is complete and united, such effects calling for the artists’ breakthrough consciousness of adopting, steering and surpassing traditions.

        The works “Home” and “Drum” are originated respectively from "Jin Wen" and “Jia Gu Wen” (the Inscriptions on Tortoise Shells and Bones), equally adopting features of such ancient constructions as tenon-and-mortise work with fairly good effects. So maybe this is for Pan Song a more constructive and sustainable way of creation. As far as the sculptors, who are keen on traditional arts like Pan Song, are concerned, this is in effect a way back home and a creative way ahead as well.

        I believe he will enjoy more wonderful scenery along this road; as a result, we will enjoy more of his wonderful works.

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